SYNOPSIS

LECTURE - LIPID LOWERING AGENTS IN STROKE

The lecture on “Lipid Lowering Agents in Stroke” delves into the intricate relationship between dyslipidemia and stroke, offering insights into the role of lipid-lowering agents in both the prevention and management of debilitating cerebrovascular condition.  Commencing with an exploration of the pathophysiological mechanisms linking dyslipidemia to stroke risk, the lecture elucidates the detrimental effects of elevated cholesterol levels on atherosclerotic plaque formation, vascular inflammation, and thrombotic events within the cerebral vasculature. Attendees gain a nuanced understanding of the pivotal role of dyslipidemia as a modifiable risk factor for ischemic stroke, hemorrhagic stroke, and recurrent cerebrovascular events. 

The lecture navigates through the landscape of lipid-lowering agents, highlighting the diverse pharmacological classes available for the management of dyslipidemia, including statins, ezetimibe, PCSK9 inhibitors (evolocumab and alirocumab), IPE offer powerful additional support in reducing stroke risk for high-risk patients, and novel emerging therapies.

Special attention to the new therapies that targeting ANGPTL3, Lp(a), and ApoC3 for the treatment.

A Tailored Approach :

  • Starting with high-intensity statins and ezetimibe.
  • Incorporating PCSK9 inhibitors, IPE, and possibly bempedoic acid in select cases based on individual risk factors.

Through multidisciplinary approaches the lecture underscores the imperative for comprehensive stroke prevention initiatives aimed at reducing the global burden of devastating cerebrovascular disease. 

In conclusion, the lecture on “Lipid Lowering Agents in Stroke” serves as a beacon of hope in the quest to mitigate the impact of dyslipidemia on stroke risk and improve patient outcomes.

PRESENTER: DR. METTA RANJINI (DNB Neurology Resident)

MODERATOR: Dr. ASHOK UPPAL (DM NEUROLOGY)

Dr. SALIL UPPAL (DM NEUROLOGY)

SHIKHIL UPPAL (MCH NEUROSURGERY)

LECTURE - EPISTAXIS

Epistaxis, commonly known as nosebleed, is a frequent occurrence encountered in clinical practice, presenting a spectrum of challenges in its diagnosis and management. This lecture aims to demystify the intricacies of epistaxis, offering a comprehensive exploration of its etiology, risk factors, clinical presentation, diagnostic approach, therapeutic interventions, and preventive strategies. 

The lecture unravels the delicate vascular architecture of the nasal cavity and the vulnerability of its mucosal lining to trauma, inflammation, and vascular abnormalities. Risk factors for epistaxis are scrutinized, with a focus on modifiable contributors such as environmental conditions, nasal trauma, coagulopathies, hypertension, and anticoagulant or antiplatelet therapy.

Clinical manifestations of epistaxis are explored in detail, encompassing the spectrum of severity from mild, self-limiting bleeds to recurrent or profuse hemorrhage necessitating urgent intervention. Through case studies, clinical vignettes and demo on how to nasal pack, attendees acquired proficiency in the systematic evaluation of epistaxis, including assessment of bleeding severity, localization of the bleeding source, and identification of associated symptoms or complications. 

The lecture delves into the diagnostic workup for epistaxis, encompassing a range of modalities such as nasal endoscopy, imaging studies, and laboratory investigations aimed at identifying underlying causes and guiding therapeutic strategies. Special attention is paid to the role of Trotter’s method, hemostatic agents, nasal packing, cautery techniques, and surgical interventions in achieving hemostasis and preventing recurrence. 

In conclusion, this lecture serves as a beacon of enlightenment amidst the challenges posed by epistaxis, empowering healthcare professionals with the knowledge, skills, and tools necessary to navigate the bleeding maze effectively.

PRESENTER: DR. BHANU (ENT CONSULTANT)

MODERATOR: Dr. ASHOK UPPAL (DM NEUROLOGY)

Dr. SALIL UPPAL (DM NEUROLOGY)

Dr. SHIKHIL UPPAL (MCH NEUROSURGERY)

LECTURE – CARDIAC ARREST

Cardiac arrest stands as a sudden, life-threatening event that strikes without warning, challenging medical professionals and society as a whole. This lecture endeavors to unravel the complexities surrounding cardiac arrest, offering a multifaceted exploration encompassing its mechanisms, risk factors, clinical presentation, management strategies, and avenues for prevention.

Commencing with a profound understanding of the physiological underpinnings of cardiac arrest, the lecture navigates through the intricate interplay of electrical dysrhythmias, ischemia, and structural heart disease, which collectively precipitate this critical condition. By elucidating the cascade of events leading to the cessation of cardiac activity, attendees gain insights into the urgency and gravity of the situation. 

Risk factors for cardiac arrest are scrutinized, with a focus on modifiable contributors such as hypertension, coronary artery disease, and lifestyle factors including smoking and physical inactivity.

The lecture delves into the nuances of advanced cardiac life support (ACLS) algorithms, training in basic life support (BLS), and access to automated external defibrillators (AEDs). Furthermore, attendees are apprised of emerging technologies and interventions on the horizon, poised to revolutionize the landscape of cardiac arrest management and prevention. 

In summation, this lecture serves as a beacon of enlightenment amidst the darkness of cardiac arrest, empowering healthcare professionals with the knowledge, skills, and tools necessary to confront this formidable adversary head-on.

PRESENTER: DR. AABID HUSAIN (CONSULTANT CARDIOLOGY)

MODERATOR: Dr. ASHOK UPPAL (DM NEUROLOGY)

Dr. SALIL UPPAL (DM NEUROLOGY)

SHIKHIL UPPAL (MCH NEUROSURGERY)

LECTURE - MENINGITIS

Meningitis, a potentially life-threatening inflammation of the protective membranes covering the brain and spinal cord, remains a significant public health concern globally. In this lecture, we delve into the intricacies of this disease, aiming to provide a comprehensive understanding of its causes, symptoms, types, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention strategies. 

The lecture begins by elucidating the etiology of meningitis, highlighting the diverse array of pathogens responsible for its occurrence, including bacteria, viruses, fungi, and, rarely, parasites. Through case studies and epidemiological data, attendees gain insights into the varied clinical manifestations of meningitis, ranging from fever, headache, and neck stiffness to more severe symptoms such as altered mental status, seizures and signs of meningitis like Kernig’s sign, Brudzinski’s neck sign and Brudzinski’s contralateral leg sign.

Emphasizing the critical role of early diagnosis in mitigating the morbidity and mortality associated with meningitis, the lecture explores the various diagnostic modalities available, including lumbar puncture, imaging studies, and laboratory tests. Special attention is paid to the challenges inherent in distinguishing between bacterial and viral meningitis, underscoring the need for judicious clinical assessment and prompt initiation of appropriate therapy with Empirical Treatment with ceftriaxone 2g I/V BD to reduce the mortality and treatment of TB that includes TB meningitis -12 months of ATT, TB Spine (Pott’s spine)-18 months of ATT.

Also they highlighted that CSF Sample should be collected in 4 tubes. 1st Sample goes to Biochemistry as due to risk of minor trauma during LP procedure. The initial tube may contain RBC, so generally it is not sent to pathlab for cell count. Furthermore, the lecture addresses the importance of supportive care measures in optimizing patient outcomes, including close monitoring of vital signs, hydration, and pain management. 

In conclusion, this lecture serves as a testament to the multifaceted nature of meningitis, underscoring the imperative for comprehensive understanding, timely intervention, and concerted prevention efforts in tackling this formidable infectious disease threat.

PRESENTER: DR. METTA RANJINI (DNB Neurology Resident)

MODERATOR: Dr. ASHOK UPPAL (DM NEUROLOGY)

Dr. SALIL UPPAL (DM NEUROLOGY)

Dr. SHIKHIL UPPAL (MCH NEUROSURGERY)

Lecture – Suturing & Access

The lecture on “Suturing and Access” would likely cover various techniques and considerations for administering medications or fluids through different routes and methods of suturing wounds.

  1. Intravenous (IV) Access: This involves inserting a needle into a vein to administer medications or fluids directly into the bloodstream. The lecture may cover the importance of proper technique, site selection, equipment needed, and potential complications such as infiltration or phlebitis.
  2. Intramuscular (IM) Access: IM injections deliver medication directly into a muscle. The lecture might discuss proper needle length, site selection (e.g., deltoid, vastus lateralis, dorsogluteal), and precautions to avoid nerve or vascular injury.
  3. Intradermal Access: Intradermal injections are administered into the dermis layer of the skin. This method is often used for allergy testing or certain vaccines. The lecture may cover proper technique, angle of insertion, and potential reactions.
  4. Subcutaneous Access: Subcutaneous injections deliver medication into the fatty tissue layer beneath the skin. Common sites include the abdomen, thigh, or upper arm. The lecture might discuss needle gauge and length, rotation of injection sites, and absorption rates.

Additional topics that may be covered include suturing techniques for wound closure, such as simple interrupted, continuous, or mattress sutures. This would involve discussing suture materials, needle types, and proper knot tying.

Overall, the lecture would aim to provide healthcare professionals with the knowledge and skills necessary to safely and effectively administer medications and perform suturing procedures across various clinical scenarios.